Commentary - Year 1 Sabbath 45

Exodus 1:1 - 2:25   -   Isaiah 27:6, Jer 1:1-19, Ezek 16:1-20   -   Psalm  41  -   2 Corinthians 6:1-10


Shevat 20, 5762 / Feb  2, 2002 

Shevat 26, 5765 / Feb  5, 2005

Shevat 26, 5768 / Feb  2, 2008

Shevat 24, 5771 / Jan 29, 2011

Shevat 24, 5774 / Jan 25, 2014

Shevat 22, 5777 / Feb 18, 2017

Shevat 20, 5780 / Feb 15, 2020

Shevat 20, 5783 / Feb 11, 2023


V'elleh Shemot / These are the Names   SCRIPTURES should be read first


(V.1-7) God chose something small – the twelve sons of Jacob who became seventy descendents – and made something “exceedingly mighty” out of it – the Hebrews “filled the land,” even though their lives were very difficult in slavery. Is this not a clear picture of His church, from its beginning? As the Hebrews were delivered from Egyptian bondage through Moses, so we will be delivered from this world of sin through Yeshua.


“These are the names”:

Reuben –    “Behold, a son!”

                “Behold, . . . the Son of Man” – Acts 7:56.

Simeon –    “Hear!” (From “Sh’ma” – obey.)

                “Every soul that does not hear that prophet (Yeshua) shall be utterly destroyed from among

                the people

                 – Acts 3:23.

Levi –         “Attachment”

                “Use your freedom . . . as bond-servants of God” – 1 Peter 2:16.

Judah –       “Praiser of Yahweh”

                “If these (praisers of Yeshua) become silent, the stones will cry out!” – Luke 19:40.

Issachar –   “Hired One”

                “Make me as one of your hired men” – Luke 15:19.

Zebulun –   “Haven of the Sea”

                “Do not harm the earth or the sea . . . until we have sealed the bond-servants of our God

                – Revelation 7:3.

Benjamin – “Son of My Right Hand”

                “Messiah Yeshua, who is at the right hand of God” – 1 Peter 3:22.

Dan –          “Judge”

                “Behold, the Judge is standing right at the door” – James 5:9.

Naphtali –  “My Wrestling”

                “For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the powers, against the                  world forces of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness in the heavenly places” –                – Ephesians 6:12

Gad –         “Fortune”

                “For Yahweh their God will care for them And restore their fortune” – Zephaniah 2:7.

Asher –      “Happiness”

                “Happy is he who does not condemn himself” – Romans 14:22.

Joseph –     “Increase”, the one who was already in Egypt, who would receive a double portion.

                “He must increase, but I must decrease” John 3:30.

                “May the Lord cause you to increase and abound in love for one another” – 1 Thessalonians 3:12.


Time frame:

The 400-year Egyptian exile is counted from the birth of Isaac in AM 2048, to the exodus in AM 2448. Jacob’s family went down to Egypt, during the famine, in AM 2238. Moses was born in AM 2366 – 318 years into the exile. Today’s portion covers almost 200 years, late in the 400-year exile.


(V.6) And Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation.

13 All these died in faith, without receiving the promises, but having seen them and having welcomed them from a distance, and having confessed that they were strangers and exiles on the earth. 14 For those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking a country of their own. 15 And indeed if they had been thinking of that country from which they went out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16 But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; for He has prepared a city for them.

 – Hebrews 11:13-16.


In verses 8-11, we see a forerunner to Hitler’s “final solution”. The Pharaoh didn’t want to lose the benefits of Hebrew labor, but he wanted to make certain that the Hebrew’s couldn’t become a power against his authority. His first stage was to commit them to hard forced labor. When they only increased more rapidly, he ordered the midwives to kill any boys as they were born. When that failed, his third stage was to have every baby boy cast into the Nile – that is, given to their major god. Perhaps this appeasement of their god would make this plan work?


Today, we tend to be caught up in the work that the world requires of us in order for us to live like our neighbors, to the extent that spiritual growth is left out. When that fails to stop us, our children are offered to the idols of sin. But God will prevail in bringing His sheep out of Egypt.


The Haftarah fits here: In the days to come Jacob will take root, Israel will blossom and sprout; and they will fill the whole world with fruit (Isaiah 27:6).


For several chapters of Genesis, we saw how Joseph prophetically pictured Yeshua. Now we will see how Moses takes up the prophetic picturing. (We say that Moses was a prophetic type – he typified Yeshua.)


As a baby, Moses lived to fulfill God’s plan, though the Pharaoh of Egypt had ordered all the sons of Israel to be killed at birth. Moses was raised in an Egyptian household.

Likewise Yeshua, as a baby, lived to fulfill God’s plan, though King Herod ordered that all the male children around Bethlehem be killed. Yeshua was secreted away to Egypt.


God called Moses out of Egypt (v.3:10). God said of Yeshua, “Out of Egypt have I called My Son” (Matthew 2:15).


(Chapter 2) Moses means “drawn from water”, yet Moses was not allowed to enter Canaan because of a sin involving water!  

And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, "Take the rod; and you and your brother Aaron assemble the congregation and speak to the rock before their eyes, that it may yield its water. You shall thus bring forth water for them out of the rock and let the congregation and their beasts drink." So Moses took the rod from before Yahweh, just as He had commanded him; and Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly before the rock. And he said to them, "Listen now, you rebels; shall we bring forth water for you out of this rock?" Then Moses lifted up his hand and struck the rock twice with his rod; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation and their beasts drank. But Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, "Because you have not believed Me, to treat Me as holy in the sight of the sons of Israel, therefore you shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them." (Numbers 20:7-12)


At the end of this chapter, we read familiar words: “Elohim zachar” – the Creator-Judge remembered – He remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. This does not imply that God forgets, as a man does, but that now the time had come for Him to act upon His promise.


We presently live in exile in “Egypt”, the world of sin. But we are partakers of the Abrahamic Covenant (Ephesians 2:12-3:9). Therefore, we are to look forward to, and prepare for, the heavenly city, which will come down to a renewed earth. There Yeshua will dwell with us.


Psalm 41 readily fits both Moses and Yeshua: (v.1-2) How blessed is he who considers the helpless; Yahweh will deliver him in a day of trouble. Yahweh will protect him, and keep him alive, and he shall be called blessed upon the earth. Moses was willing to give his life for God’s helpless people; Yeshua did.


Paul quotes God, saying, (2 Corinthians 6:2) “At the acceptable time I listened to you, and on the day of salvation I helped you”; behold, now is “the acceptable time,” behold, now is “the day of salvation.”(V.4) In everything commending ourselves as servants of God, in much endurance, in afflictions, in hardships, in distresses . . .


Moses was coming to “the day of salvation” – this is the prelude to the Passover. This was his “acceptable time”. He would have to endure afflictions and hardships.


This is our “day of salvation”. Now is “the acceptable time”. We must learn to serve God, though it be through affliction and hardship. We must be willing to give up the “pleasures of sin for a season” and hold the ultimate goal before us.


We should maintain purity, the Word of Truth, and genuine love (v.6-7). Maintaining purity is about being holy to God – separated from the world for His service. The Word of Truth is not subject to “private interpretation” (1 Peter 1:20): not denominational dogma or personal feelings; we must seek the historical truth. Genuine love is not just being lovey-dovey, condoning freedom-of-choice, one-religion-is-as-good-as-another, or accepting false worship “to gain converts”; it is doing what will lead others toward Godliness, to repentance from dead works, and faith in the Living God.



"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King of the Universe,

Who chose us from among all peoples by giving us Your Torah.

Blessed are You, Yahweh, giver of the Torah."


Reader 1*  Amen. 1 Now these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob; they came each one with his household: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; 3 Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; 4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5 All the persons who came from the loins of Jacob were seventy in number, but Joseph was already in Egypt. 6 Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation. 7 But the sons of Israel were fruitful and increased greatly, and multiplied, and became exceedingly mighty, so that the land was filled with them.

Reader 2*  Amen. 8 Now a new king arose over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. 9 He said to his people, "Behold, the people of the sons of Israel are more and mightier than we. 10 "Come, let us deal wisely with them, or else they will multiply and in the event of war, they will also join themselves to those who hate us, and fight against us and depart from the land." 11 So they appointed taskmasters over them to afflict them with hard labor. And they built for Pharaoh storage cities, Pithom and Raamses. 12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out, so that they were in dread of the sons of Israel. 13 The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously; 14 and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar and bricks and at all kinds of labor in the field, all their labors which they rigorously imposed on them.

Reader 3*  Amen. 15 Then the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah and the other was named Puah; 16 and he said, "When you are helping the Hebrew women to give birth and see them upon the birthstool, if it is a son, then you shall put him to death; but if it is a daughter, then she shall live." 17 But the midwives feared God, and did not do as the king of Egypt had commanded them, but let the boys live. 18 So the king of Egypt called for the midwives and said to them, "Why have you done this thing, and let the boys live?" 19 The midwives said to Pharaoh, "Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are vigorous and give birth before the midwife can get to them." 20 So God was good to the midwives, and the people multiplied, and became very mighty.

Reader 4*  Amen. 21 Because the midwives feared God, He established households for them. 22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, "Every son who is born you are to cast into the Nile, and every daughter you are to keep alive."

2:1 Now a man from the house of Levi went and married a daughter of Levi. 2 The woman conceived and bore a son; and when she saw that he was beautiful, she hid him for three months. 3 But when she could hide him no longer, she got him a wicker basket and covered it over with tar and pitch. Then she put the child into it and set it among the reeds by the bank of the Nile. 4 His sister stood at a distance to find out what would happen to him.

Reader 5*  Amen. 5 The daughter of Pharaoh came down to bathe at the Nile, with her maidens walking alongside the Nile; and she saw the basket among the reeds and sent her maid, and she brought it to her. 6 When she opened it, she saw the child, and behold, the boy was crying. And she had pity on him and said, "This is one of the Hebrews' children." 7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh's daughter, "Shall I go and call a nurse for you from the Hebrew women that she may nurse the child for you?" 8 Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Go ahead." So the girl went and called the child's mother. 9 Then Pharaoh's daughter said to her, "Take this child away and nurse him for me and I will give you your wages." So the woman took the child and nursed him. 10 The child grew, and she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter and he became her son. And she named him Moses, and said, "Because I drew him out of the water."

Reader 6*  Amen. 11 Now it came about in those days, when Moses had grown up, that he went out to his brethren and looked on their hard labors; and he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his brethren. 12 So he looked this way and that, and when he saw there was no one around, he struck down the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. 13 He went out the next day, and behold, two Hebrews were fighting with each other; and he said to the offender, "Why are you striking your companion?" 14 But he said, "Who made you a prince or a judge over us? Are you intending to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?" Then Moses was afraid and said, "Surely the matter has become known." 15 When Pharaoh heard of this matter, he tried to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the presence of Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well.

Reader 7*  Amen. 16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came to draw water and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. 17 Then the shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and helped them and watered their flock. 18 When they came to Reuel their father, he said, "Why have you come back so soon today?" 19 So they said, "An Egyptian delivered us from the hand of the shepherds, and what is more, he even drew the water for us and watered the flock." 20 He said to his daughters, "Where is he then? Why is it that you have left the man behind? Invite him to have something to eat." 21 Moses was willing to dwell with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses. 22 Then she gave birth to a son, and he named him Gershom, for he said, "I have been a sojourner in a foreign land." 23 Now it came about in the course of those many days that the king of Egypt died. And the sons of Israel sighed because of the bondage, and they cried out; and their cry for help because of their bondage rose up to God. 24 So God heard their groaning; and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 25 God saw the sons of Israel, and God took notice of them.


"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King of the Universe,

Who in giving us Yeshua, the Living Torah, has planted everlasting life in our midst.

Blessed are You, Yahweh, giver of the Torah."



"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King of the Universe,

Who selected good prophets, delighting in their words which were spoken truthfully.

Blessed are You, Yahweh, Who chose the Torah, Your servant Moses, Your people Israel,

and the prophets of truth and righteousness."


Isaiah 27:6

Reader 8*  Amen. In the days to come Jacob will take root, Israel will blossom and sprout; and they will fill the whole world with fruit.


Jeremiah 1:1-19

Reader 9*  Amen. 1 The words of Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah, of the priests who were in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin, 2 to whom the word of Yahweh came in the days of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign. 3 It came also in the days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, until the end of the eleventh year of Zedekiah the son of Josiah, king of Judah, until the exile of Jerusalem in the fifth month. 4 Now the word of Yahweh came to me saying, 5 "Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you; I have appointed you a prophet to the nations." 6 Then I said, "Alas, Lord Yahweh! Behold, I do not know how to speak, because I am a youth." 7 But Yahweh said to me, "Do not say, 'I am a youth,' because everywhere I send you, you shall go, and all that I command you, you shall speak. 8 "Do not be afraid of them, for I am with you to deliver you," declares Yahweh. 9 Then Yahweh stretched out His hand and touched my mouth, and Yahweh said to me, "Behold, I have put My words in your mouth. 10 "See, I have appointed you this day over the nations and over the kingdoms, to pluck up and to break down, to destroy and to overthrow, to build and to plant."

Reader 10*  Amen. 11 The word of Yahweh came to me saying, "What do you see, Jeremiah?" And I said, "I see a rod of an almond tree." 12 Then Yahweh said to me, "You have seen well, for I am watching over My word to perform it." 13 The word of Yahweh came to me a second time saying, "What do you see?" And I said, "I see a boiling pot, facing away from the north." 14 Then Yahweh said to me, "Out of the north the evil will break forth on all the inhabitants of the land. 15 "For, behold, I am calling all the families of the kingdoms of the north," declares Yahweh; "and they will come and they will set each one his throne at the entrance of the gates of Jerusalem, and against all its walls round about and against all the cities of Judah. 16 "I will pronounce My judgments on them concerning all their wickedness, whereby they have forsaken Me and have offered sacrifices to other gods, and worshiped the works of their own hands. 17 "Now, gird up your loins and arise, and speak to them all which I command you. Do not be dismayed before them, or I will dismay you before them. 18 "Now behold, I have made you today as a fortified city and as a pillar of iron and as walls of bronze against the whole land, to the kings of Judah, to its princes, to its priests and to the people of the land. 19 "They will fight against you, but they will not overcome you, for I am with you to deliver you," declares Yahweh.


Ezekiel 16:1-20

Reader 11*  Amen. 1 Then the word of Yahweh came to me, saying, 2 "Son of man, make known to Jerusalem her abominations 3 and say, 'Thus says Lord Yahweh to Jerusalem, "Your origin and your birth are from the land of the Canaanite, your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. 4 As for your birth, on the day you were born your navel cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water for cleansing; you were not rubbed with salt or even wrapped in cloths. 5 No eye looked with pity on you to do any of these things for you, to have compassion on you. Rather you were thrown out into the open field, for you were abhorred on the day you were born. 6 When I passed by you and saw you squirming in your blood, I said to you while you were in your blood, 'Live!' Yes, I said to you while you were in your blood, 'Live!' 7 I made you numerous like plants of the field. Then you grew up, became tall and reached the age for fine ornaments; your breasts were formed and your hair had grown. Yet you were naked and bare.

Reader 12*  Amen. 8 Then I passed by you and saw you, and behold, you were at the time for love; so I spread My skirt over you and covered your nakedness. I also swore to you and entered into a covenant with you so that you became Mine," declares Lord Yahweh. 9 "Then I bathed you with water, washed off your blood from you and anointed you with oil. 10 I also clothed you with embroidered cloth and put sandals of porpoise skin on your feet; and I wrapped you with fine linen and covered you with silk. 11 I adorned you with ornaments, put bracelets on your hands and a necklace around your neck. 12 I also put a ring in your nostril, earrings in your ears and a beautiful crown on your head. 13 Thus you were adorned with gold and silver, and your dress was of fine linen, silk and embroidered cloth. You ate fine flour, honey and oil; so you were exceedingly beautiful and advanced to royalty. 14 Then your fame went forth among the nations on account of your beauty, for it was perfect because of My splendor which I bestowed on you," declares Lord Yahweh.

Reader 13*  Amen. 15 "But you trusted in your beauty and played the harlot because of your fame, and you poured out your harlotries on every passer-by who might be willing. 16 You took some of your clothes, made for yourself high places of various colors and played the harlot on them, which should never come about nor happen. 17 You also took your beautiful jewels made of My gold and of My silver, which I had given you, and made for yourself male images that you might play the harlot with them. 18 Then you took your embroidered cloth and covered them, and offered My oil and My incense before them. 19 Also My bread which I gave you, fine flour, oil and honey with which I fed you, you would offer before them for a soothing aroma; so it happened," declares Lord Yahweh. 20 "Moreover, you took your sons and daughters whom you had borne to Me and sacrificed them to idols to be devoured. Were your harlotries so small a matter?” ’ ”


Psalm 41    (To be sung.)    For the choir director. A Psalm of David.

1 How blessed is he who considers the helpless; Yahweh will deliver him in a day of trouble. 2 Yahweh will protect him and keep him alive, and he shall be called blessed upon the earth; and do not give him over to the desire of his enemies. 3 Yahweh will sustain him upon his sickbed; in his illness, You restore him to health. 4 As for me, I said, "O Yahweh, be gracious to me; heal my soul, for I have sinned against You." 5 My enemies speak evil against me, "When will he die, and his name perish?" 6 And when he comes to see me, he speaks falsehood; his heart gathers wickedness to itself; when he goes outside, he tells it. 7 All who hate me whisper together against me; against me they devise my hurt, saying, 8 "A wicked thing is poured out upon him, that when he lies down, he will not rise up again." 9 Even my close friend in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, has lifted up his heel against me. 10 But You, O Yahweh, be gracious to me and raise me up, that I may repay them. 11 By this I know that You are pleased with me, because my enemy does not shout in triumph over me. 12 As for me, You uphold me in my integrity, and You set me in Your presence forever. 13 Blessed be Yahweh, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Amen and Amen.


2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Reader 14*  Amen. 1 And working together with Him, we also urge you not to receive the grace of God in vain-- 2 for He says, "At the accepablr time I listened to you, and on the day of salvation I helped you." Behold, now is "the acceptable time," behold, now is "the day of salvation" – 3 giving no cause for offense in anything, so that the ministry will not be discredited, 4 but in everything commending ourselves as servants of God, in much endurance, in afflictions, in hardships, in distresses, 5 in beatings, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labors, in sleeplessness, in hunger, 6 in purity, in knowledge, in patience, in kindness, in the Holy Spirit, in genuine love, 7 in the word of truth, in the power of God; by the weapons of righteousness for the right hand and the left, 8 by glory and dishonor, by evil report and good report; regarded as deceivers and yet true; 9 as unknown yet well-known, as dying yet behold, we live; as punished yet not put to death, 10 as sorrowful yet always rejoicing, as poor yet making many rich, as having nothing yet possessing all things.


"Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, King of the Universe,

Rock of Ages, righteous throughout all generations.

You are the faithful God, promising and then performing, speaking and then fulfilling,

for all Your words are true and righteous.

Faithful are You, Yahweh our God, and faithful are Your words,

for no word of Yours shall remain unfulfilled;

You are a faithful and merciful God and King.

Blessed are You, Yahweh our God, Who are faithful in fulfilling all Your words."

© 2004  Beikvot HaMashiach
(Followers of the Messiah)